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Path to UK Citizenship: Understanding the Naturalization Process and Timeline
October 19, 2023
Are you moving to the United Kingdom from the United States? The UK offers two options for foreigners wishing to move permanently: indefinite leave to remain (ILR) or naturalization.
Which option is best for you? And how does the British naturalization process work?
In this guide, we’ll cover all the ins and outs of becoming a UK citizen for Americans, including how to apply for citizenship, the requirements, and the timeline. We’ll also answer common questions on the naturalization process for the United Kingdom.
Can a US citizen become a UK citizen?
The short answer is yes: As a US citizen, you can apply for and obtain British citizenship. The process is complex and involves several steps and requirements. Read on for answers to common questions that will help you find the path to citizenship that’s right for you.
How easy is it for Americans to become UK citizens?
The ease of application depends on your circumstances. A first step is to gather all the documents to prove your eligibility for naturalization as a British citizen. This process can be easier if you have the correct information and are well-prepared. It can be made simpler through the counsel of an agent or legal representative.
Applying for British citizenship by naturalization can be done in two ways: You can apply yourself, or you can apply through an agent or representative who will assist you throughout the process and offer advice.
While it may involve additional costs, having someone to answer your questions each step of the way, help you gather the documents you’ll need, and avoid common application errors can make this sometimes daunting process much more manageable.
What are the routes to British citizenship for US citizens?
There are several different routes to British citizenship for Americans, depending on your circumstances, such as your ancestry, place of birth, and the nationality of your spouse or partner.
You might already be a British citizen
British citizenship is automatic for some people. British citizenship is automatic if you were both born in the UK after January 1, 1983, and if one of your parents was a British citizen. If you were born in the UK before January 1, 1983, you are automatically a British citizen unless your father was a diplomat working for another country or an enemy alien during World War II. You can check with the British government to confirm your citizenship status.
You may have a right to apply for British citizenship as a Qualifying British national
Citizenship is available to people with other types of British nationality, including British overseas territory citizens, and Chagosian descendants (direct descendants of people born in British Indian Ocean territory).
You can try to reclaim your nationality after renunciation
You can apply to reclaim your British citizenship if you once renounced it.
Otherwise, you can still apply for British naturalization, either on your own or through marriage or civil partnership.
You can apply for citizenship by naturalization
Most people can apply for British citizenship if they have lawfully lived in the UK for six years (five years of residence, plus one year under Indefinite Leave to Remain status).
You can apply for British citizenship by marriage
UK immigration rules dictate that applicants must have lived in the country for at least three years before applying for British citizenship through marriage. You may apply for citizenship when you receive permanent residency, (the right to live, work, and study in the UK as long as you want), or indefinite entry status.
What are the steps to becoming a naturalized citizen of the UK?
There are various paths to citizenship, but most people become naturalized British citizens. For that to happen, you must first legally reside in the UK for five years. You can apply for an Indefinite Leave to Remain after five years. Within 12 months of receiving your ILR, you can apply for citizenship. You do not have to wait a year if you apply for naturalization by marriage or civil partnership.
You must pass the Life in the UK test to apply for citizenship.
Once your application is filed, the Home Office will review it. Applications can take around six months to process, depending on workload.
Upon approval, you need to book a citizenship ceremony. Once you become a British citizen, you can apply for a passport and register to vote.
How do you satisfy the UK’s good character requirement?
For registration or naturalization as a British citizen, any applicant 10 years or older must demonstrate “good character” and be law-abiding.
The UK Home Office scrutinizes criminal records and immigration conditions. Crimes may disqualify you from British citizenship.
You will also be considered for immigration by the UK Home Office based on your financial situation and contributions to British society during your time there.
How do you prepare for the Life in the UK test?
You must pass the Life in the UK Test before applying for British citizenship or settlement in the UK. The test covers UK law, the legal system, working, and other aspects of life in Britain . Test questions are based on information in the Life in the UK Test Handbook, available as a book, eBook, e-Learning subscription, or audio.
You can take the test any time before you apply. When you book your test, you can choose from more than 30 test centers in the UK. The Life in the UK Test must be booked online at least three days in advance and costs £50.
You’ll have 45 minutes to answer 24 questions about British traditions and customs.
A passing grade (75%) is required to obtain British citizenship or settle in the United Kingdom. When you pass the test, you will receive a “unique reference number” that you’ll need when you submit your citizenship application. The UK Home Office will verify your grade using this unique reference number.
Exemptions from the Life in the UK testing requirements
The Life in the UK test is not required if you are under 18 years of age, 65 or older, or have passed it before. You are also exempt if you have a long-term physical or mental condition that prevents you from test taking. Note that you must provide either a form or letter from a doctor confirming the physical or mental condition that prevents you from taking the test.
What are the required documents for British citizenship by naturalization?
To prove your eligibility for British citizenship, you will need to provide substantial evidence, and you’ll want to gather those documents before applying.
You must prepare your evidence portfolio before submitting your British citizenship application form. It is common for UK citizenship applications to be rejected due to insufficient evidence of eligibility.
Your documentation must meet all administrative standards the Home Office sets to be considered. UK immigration officials will review your supporting documents to confirm your eligibility.
Here are the documents you will need:
- Documents that prove your identity, such as your passport, birth certificate, or driver’s license.
- Proof that you were lawfully resident in the UK during your qualifying period
- Proof of your Indefinite Leave to Remain status in the United Kingdom
- Details of your previous immigration status (including before you moved to the UK)
- Confirmation that you have passed the Life in the UK test
- Details on any time you spent outside the UK during your qualifying period
As soon as your portfolio of evidence is ready, you or your agent can begin filling out the application for UK naturalization.
What is the difference between Indefinite Leave to Remain and British citizenship?
You can apply for Indefinite Leave to Remain (ILR) after living lawfully in the UK for five years. It allows you to live and work in the UK without immigration restrictions. It does not automatically grant you the same rights as British citizens.
Here are some key differences between British citizenship and ILR:
- Citizenship makes it possible to vote and run for office in British elections. Those with ILR status cannot do either.
- ILR status is lost after two years abroad. Citizens of the UK can reside wherever they choose, always with the right to return and settle in the UK.
- After obtaining your ILR, you must usually live in the UK for 12 months. Citizenship through marriage or civil partnership is not subject to this 12-month requirement.
- You need more than ILR status for a British passport—you need British citizenship.
When can I apply for British citizenship?
You can apply 12 months after obtaining ILR status, or immediately after obtaining your ILR if you are a UK citizen’s spouse or civil partner.
How long does the UK naturalization process take?
In all, the process can take nearly seven years, including the five years of residency required before obtaining an ILR, the additional year required before you can apply, the up to six months required for the UK Home Office to process your application, and the time required to complete your citizenship ceremony and apply to obtain your UK passport.
What regulations are involved in becoming a naturalized citizen of the UK?
You must meet the following to qualify for British citizenship by naturalization:
- You must be 18 years of age or older
- You must have held an Indefinite Leave to Remain for at least 12 months
- You must not have spent more than 450 days abroad during your qualifying residency, or more than 270 days in the past three years.
- You must have passed the Life in the UK test, which involves a series of questions about British culture, customs, and history.
- You must demonstrate “good character.”
- You must provide the names of two references with no criminal convictions who have known you for at least three years and can help confirm your identity. They cannot be your relatives, your agents, or work for the UK Home Office.
- You must not violate any immigration conditions during your time in the UK
What is the fee for becoming a UK citizen?
The UK naturalization application fee is £1330 for adults or £1012 for children under 18. The application fee is nonrefundable if your application is refused or withdrawn.
If your application is rejected for reasons of incomplete information, you may receive a refund minus a £25 administrative fee. If your application is approved, you may need to book a citizenship ceremony for a fee of £80.
In addition to mandatory government fees, Newland Chase’s service fees start as low as $TK .
FAQs about the UK naturalization process
How do I apply for British citizenship?
Apply independently or with the assistance of an agent. If you wish to apply independently, you can complete the form and upload the required documents online. Original documents must be scanned again at the UK Visa and Citizenship Application Services (UKVCAS) appointment.
Postal applications are also accepted for British citizenship. You should not use this process if you need your documents (including your passport) back by a specific date.
Applicants from the Channel Islands, Isle of Man, or British overseas territories must apply by post or in person. Your governor’s office will inform you which option you have and where to send your biometric data.
Is dual citizenship allowed in the UK?
Yes, you can be a citizen of the UK while maintaining citizenship in another country.
What are the UK’s continuous residency requirements?
If you wish to qualify for continuous residency, you must show proof of living in the UK for a minimum period of five years. You cannot have spent more than 450 days outside the UK during that time, or 270 days outside the UK in the last three years.
Will my child get British citizenship?
While applying for UK citizenship, you can also apply for the naturalization of your children. Your children born in the UK will automatically qualify to be registered as UK citizens after you are granted citizenship.
What does British citizenship entitle me to?
When you become a British citizen, you can apply for a UK passport and register to vote. Also, citizenship is not lost if you live or travel outside of the UK indefinitely.
How long does the British citizenship application process take?
It depends on how long you need to gather the documents and pass the Life in the UK test. The UK Home Office generally takes three to six months to review British citizenship applications, and you may need to provide additional information during this time. Responding to any questions in a timely fashion will help speed up the application process.
How can I track my British citizenship application status?
What can I do if my application for British citizenship was refused?
You may wish to seek legal advice about your options. If you believe the UK Home Office’s decision was not based on adequate law, policy, or procedure, you can file form NR to request that they reconsider your application.
Your ILR status still allows you to reside legally in the UK if your application is denied. You must not leave the UK for more than two years to retain your status. In case of long-term absences, a Returning Resident visa may allow you to reenter the UK and have Indefinite Leave to Remain.
Can I become a British citizen if I have previous convictions or offenses?
Although you are required to prove “good character,” you may still qualify for UK citizenship despite convictions and offenses on your record, depending on their nature. The UK Home Office will review your application, and it is crucial that you declare any criminal record fully and honestly.
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